The dashed line is the temperature setpoint which is stepped in several intervals of a typical experiment from −160 °C to 400 °C. The solid line shows the sample temperature (process value).
As can be seen, temperature stabilization is very accurate without any visible overshooting and fast. Typical stabilization time is 8 minutes per step.
After each stabilization, a dielectric or impedance measurement sweep is started. After the sweep is done, the next temperature setpoint is adjusted.