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RF Material Measurements for Frequency Extensions to the GHz Range

NOVOCONTROL offers broadband electric material measurement systems for the frequency domain up to the GHz range. At frequencies above about 10 MHz, electrical wave effects become prominent and microwave techniques have to be applied. 

Impedance measurement up to several 10 GHz is most often based on network analyzers which measure the reflected and transmitted waves of two microwave lines with the sample in between. 

For frequencies below 3 GHz, so called RF impedance analyzers are available. They are network analyzers optimized only for impedance measurement. RF impedance analyzers measure only the wave reflected from a sample which terminates a microwave line. 

Compared to general network analyzers, RF impedance analyzers have higher accuracy and are easier to handle.

The following RF analyzers are compatible with Novocontrol RF hardware and WinDETA software.


Instrument Analyzer Type Frequency Impedance tan(δ) accuracy (typical)
Keysight E4991B-300 RF Impedance 1 MHz .. 3 GHz 0.1 Ω .. 100 kΩ  > 3⋅10-3
Agilent E4991A RF Impedance 1 MHz .. 3 GHz 0.1 Ω .. 100 kΩ  > 3⋅10-3
Agilent 4291 RF Impedance 1 MHz .. 1.8 GHz 0.1 Ω .. 100 kΩ > 3⋅10-3
HP 4191 RF Impedance 1 MHz .. 1 GHz 0.1 Ω .. 100 kΩ > 3⋅10-3
Rohde & Schwarz ZVA or ZVB Network 20 kHz .. 8 GHz 0.1 Ω .. 10 kΩ > 3⋅10-2 or > 10-2

In addition to the impedance or network analyzer, the Novocontrol RF systems include a RF sample cell for electric material measurements, control and evaluation software WinDETA and computer. 

Temperature control from −160 °C to 400 °C of the RF sample cell by one of the standard temperature control systems is available as an option. In addition to the temperature control system, a microwave RF extension line and a RF mounting rack are required.