# Alpha-A Analyzer Measurement Examples:

## High impedance materials and components

Some data are shown in terms of parallel resistance Zp' in Fig. 1 and parallel capacity Cp' in Fig. 2.

The crosses and circles show the results for two resistors
of 10^{11} Ω and 10^{12} Ω. The parallel resistance results Zp' appear
flat in the low-frequency regime, showing the nominal values of
1 TΩ and 100 GΩ up to 3 Hz and 30 Hz, respectively.
At higher frequencies, the resistance decreases by about three orders of magnitude
due to internal dielectric relaxation of the used resistor material.

For the 100 GΩ and 1 TΩ resistors, the measured capacities are nearly flat, exhibiting values around 200 fF and 100 fF, respectively. The capacity contribution is mainly due to the resistor wires and electrode stray capacities. The small capacity increase to low frequencies of 90 fF for the 100 GΩ resistor and 30 fF for the 1 TΩ resistor is due to the dielectric relaxation of the resistor material and consistent with the Zp' data.

The triangles show data of PVDF at −60 °C, a highly insulating dielectric material. Here the parallel resistance Zp' attains extraordinarily high values, especially in the low-frequency region.

As expected for a dielectric material with comparatively low loss, the capacity is nearly flat over the entire frequency range.

For comparison, both plots show correponding data of the open ZG4 impedance ports. These represent the typical high impedance and low capacity instrumental limits.