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Excellence in Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy • Impedance Spectroscopy • Conductivity Spectroscopy

Overview

Analyzers for electrical analysis of materials or components in the frequency domain 

Generals
Impedance analyzers measure the complex impedance Z*(ω) = Z'(ω) + jZ''(ω) between electrical ports of a system under test in dependence of frequency ω/(2π). For materials analysis,  the Z*(ω) spectrum of two or more electrodes with the sample material in between is measured.

Depending on the sample material, the requirements to the impedance analyzer are extraordinary high and the result quality and availability strongly depends on its performance. 

In practice one is generally not so much interested in extreme high accuracy, but to measure both components of Z*(ω), permittivity ε*(ω) or conductivity σ*(ω) at all. 

Beside the frequency range, the impedance range and the tan(δ) or phase accuracy are the most important performance parameters.

Low frequency analyzers < 40 MHz
RF impedance analyzers > 1 MHz
At frequencies above about 10 MHz, electrical wave effects become prominent and microwave techniques have to be applied.