Analyzers for electrical analysis of materials or components in the frequency domain
GeneralsImpedance analyzers measure the complex impedance Z*(ω) = Z'(ω) + jZ''(ω) between electrical ports of a system under test in dependence of frequency ω/(2π). For materials analysis, the Z*(ω) spectrum of two or more electrodes with the sample material in between is measured.
Depending on the sample material, the requirements to the impedance analyzer are extraordinary high and the result quality and availability strongly depends on its performance.
In practice one is generally not so much interested in extreme high accuracy, but to measure both components of Z*(ω), permittivity ε*(ω) or conductivity σ*(ω) at all.
Beside the frequency range, the impedance range and the tan(δ) or phase accuracy are the most important performance parameters.
Low frequency analyzers < 40 MHz
Alpha-A modular measurement system with test
interfaces for nearly all material and component classes including
Ranges: Impedance 0.001 .. 1015 Ω, tan(δ) > 3⋅10-5
Combines features of general impedance analyzers, dielectric and electrochemical measurement systems, extends tan(δ) accuracy. Convenient for nearly all kind of materials or components. Measures broadband low loss dielectrics like e.g. Polyethylene.
Supports a series of high performance test interfaces with special functionality like integrated active sample cell, 4-wire high impedance measurements, high voltage / high current measurements and potentiostat, galvanostat functions for electrochemical applications.
Supported by WinDETA
Beta and Alpha single unit analyzers for nearly all material and component classes
Ranges: Impedance 0.01 .. 1014 Ω, tan(δ) > 3⋅10-5
Combines features of general impedance analyzers and dielectric measurement systems, extends tan(δ) accuracy.
Convenient for nearly all kind of materials or components. Measures broadband low loss dielectrics like e.g. Polyethylene.
Supported by WinDETA
- Device combinations for dielectric measurements
Typical ranges: Impedance 1 kΩ .. 1014 Ω, tan(δ) > 3⋅10-4
Convenient for insulating samples like polymers, plastics, ceramics and glasses.
Supported by WinDETA: Novocontrol BDC + FRA or Lockin amplifier, Chelsea Dielectric Interface + FRA
- General impedance analyzers based on auto balancing bridge or I/V methods
Typical ranges: Impedance 0.01 .. 108 Ω, tan(δ) > 10-3
Convenient for sufficient conductive samples like semiconductors, electrolytes and non isolating electronic components.
Supported by WinDETA: HP4284, HP4285, HP4194, HP4294, HP4192, SI1260
RF impedance analyzers > 1 MHzAt frequencies above about 10 MHz, electrical wave effects become prominent and microwave techniques have to be applied.
Network or RF-impedance analyzers
Typical ranges: Frequency 1 MHz .. 3 GHz, Impedance 0.1 .. 105 Ω, tan(δ) > 3⋅10-3
Convenient for dielectrics with sufficient relaxation strength and conductive samples like semiconductors, electrolytes and electronic components
Supported by WinDETA: Keysight E4991B, Agilent E4991A, HP4291, HP4191 RF impedance analyzers, Rhode & Schwarz ZVR network analyzer series.