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General impedance analyzers

Based on auto balancing bridge or I/V methods

Typical parameters are:

These analyzers are frequently used for conductive samples where the charge transport is governed by free electrons or ions. Examples are semiconductors or electrolytes.

The impedance and tan(δ) ranges of these materials are usually found within the above mentiond limits and can thus be measured without major difficulties in this case.

For electrolytes which often show low frequency dependence, impedance analyzers which directly measure sample voltage and current (I/V method) can be used. These are based on frequency response analyzers or lock-in amplifiers and have similar parameters as above, but an extended low frequency range down to some mHz.