Most system operate in the frequency domain and measure directly the complex impedance of a sample capacitor as a function of frequency, temperature, ac voltage, dc bias, pressure and time (or any combinations of these quantities up to 4 dimensions). From the sample impedance, the other dielectric parameters like complex dielectric function or complex conductivity are calculated.
In addition, at frequencies from 1 MHz - 3 GHz, measurements of the magnetic complex permeability are supported.
Three temperature control systems from −160 °C to 400 °C are available as an option and maybe combined with any dielectric and impedance measurement system. For frequencies below 1 MHz, a high pressure - temperature control system and high temperature control systems up to 1600 °C are offered.
Thermally stimulated depolarization (TSDC) and time domain measurements can be added.