The dashed line is the temperature setpoint which is stepped in several intervals of a typical experiment from −100 °C to 250 °C. The solid line shows the sample temperature (process value).
As can be seen, temperature stabilization is very accurate without any visible overshooting and fast. Typical stabilization time is 10 minutes per step.
After each stabilization, a dielectric or impedance measurement sweep is started. After sweep completion the subsequent temperature setpoint is set.